China is a major country of cultural relics in the world.The 5,000 years of continuous Chinese civilization has left behind a large number of colorful cultural relics,which carry rich historical information and cultural genes.Treating cultural relics well is an essential part of inheriting the Chinese culture and keeping the soul of the nation.However,for a long time,there have been two views on how to treat cultural relics well.One view holds that cultural relics can only be protected,but cannot be developed and utilized.Once developed and utilized,they will be destroyed.The other view is that cultural relics can only be better preserved through development and utilization.There are also two undesirable phenomena in the practice of cultural relics work.One is inadequate protection,with some ancient buildings and sites in dilapidated condition and neglected.The other is excessive use,demolition and construction,excessive commercial development,some of the cultural relics scars and even ashes.In April this year,Comrade Xi Jinping made important instructions on the work of cultural relics,calling for strengthening the protection of cultural relics,promoting the rational and appropriate utilization of cultural relics,and striving to blaze a path for the protection and utilization of cultural relics that suits China's national conditions.This shows us that there is no contradiction between the protection and utilization of cultural relics.The key is to find a balance between the two and realize the unity of protection and utilization.
For a period of time,some places have spared no effort to develop and utilize cultural relics out of consideration of political achievements and economic benefits,but to some extent they have neglected protection.Although they are under the banner of paying equal attention to protection and utilization as well as management and development,in fact the protection is not in place and the management is in vain,which has caused irreparable damage to some cultural relics.The protection and utilization of cultural relics are the unity of opposites.To deal with this contradiction,the key is to grasp the"degree":neither excessive development makes it difficult for cultural relics to survive,nor excessive protection makes them lose vitality;Only by combining conservation and utilization can we realize the sustainable inheritance of cultural relics.
Strengthening protection is the basic premise of development and utilization.The purpose of protecting cultural relics is to improve the regeneration ability of cultural resources and obtain social and economic benefits.Cultural relics often have specific basic attributes and inheritance rules.Only by completely protecting their unique attributes can they maintain their economic and social values.Only cultural relics with distinctive features can attract tourists and promote the development of cultural industries.To protect cultural relics,first of all,we must protect their authenticity.We must not destroy or alter them at will,let alone fabricate them.Any change to the authenticity of cultural relics runs counter to the principles of conservation.In this regard,we have learned many lessons from the past and should take it as a warning.Secondly,the integrity of cultural relics should be protected.Cultural relics have fixed components and spatial structures,and their integrity should not be destroyed by neglecting the front or the back or the front or the tail.
Development and utilization is an effective way to protect and inherit heritage.In essence,the rational development and utilization of cultural relics is to excavate the commodity attribute of cultural heritage,make it into cultural products,realize the value,and promote the protection and inheritance of cultural relics.Rational development and utilization of cultural relics,in fact,is also an effective way to protect cultural relics,which can enhance the vitality and sustainable development of cultural relics.It not only realizes the purpose of inheriting cultural heritage,but also plays an important role in stimulating domestic demand,expanding employment and promoting economic development.Of course,the development and utilization of cultural relics must be reasonable and appropriate,on the premise that cultural relics should be effectively protected.Therefore,we should actively explore the protection and utilization mode of a virtuous cycle.In this regard,Hong Kong's"Revitalising Historic Buildings through Partnership Scheme"provides a useful reference.The Hong Kong government adopts the idea of"activating"the ancient buildings.Under the supervision of the government and professionals,the ancient buildings are handed over to social organizations for operation,which not only reduces the burden of the government,but also ensures that their historical and cultural values will not be destroyed in the operation process.In addition,it can improve the public's attention to the protection and utilization of ancient buildings.Similarly,the protection and utilization of ancient buildings in France also adopts the way of social participation,encouraging people to rent the ancient buildings that meet the conditions,but there are strict restrictions on the use and transformation of ancient buildings.
In addition,the industrialization of cultural heritage should be viewed correctly in practice.The industrialization of cultural heritage is to introduce cultural heritage resources such as cultural relics into the industrialization operation track and operate in accordance with industrial rules and laws.The industrialization of cultural heritage should be based on the premise of the complete protection of the core connotation and value of cultural heritage,but not at the cost of the authenticity,integrity and inherent cultural connotation of cultural heritage.If cultural heritage is indiscriminately brought into the scope of industrialization,it will violate the purposes and principles of protection and inheritance,damage cultural relics and other cultural heritages and affect their inheritance and development.